Publication Details

Technical paper TP07

Fire Loads for Realistic Risk Assessment Applications in Petrochemical Industry

Authors: Dr P Praks, VSB-The Technical University of Ostrava, S Medonos, Petrellus Engineering Ltd, Dr R Raman, Lloyd’s Register. Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference ESREL 2009.


The determination of loads from accidental fires with realistic accuracy in the oil and gas industry offshore and petrochemical industry onshore is important for the prediction of exposure of personnel, equipment and structures to the fires. Standards, Codes of Practice and other similar publications refer to thermal loading from jet fires from 100 to 400kW/m2 and from 50 to 250kW/m2 for pool fires. The application of inappropriate fire loads may lead to incorrect predictions of fatalities, explosion of pressure vessels and collapse of structures. Further uncertainties are associated with heat transfer from the flame to pressure equipment and structures, and their behaviour when affected by accidental fires. The Paper presents results of a review of fire models from various Standards and Codes of Practice, and data obtained from full scale tests. A parametric study of the various methods used in the industry is presented. A simulation-based reliability assessment (SBRA) method has been applied to quantify potential accuracy range and its consequences to fire effects on structures.

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